Kurdish

The Kurdish languages (Kurdî or کوردی) are several Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in western Asia. There are four maim varieties: Kurmanji Northern Part of region known as Kurdistan (Turkey and Surya) Sorani further east and south (Iran and Iraq) Another group of languages, Zaza–Gorani, is spoken by several million Kurds. Hewrami, a dialect of Gorani, was an important literary language since the fourteenth century but was replaced by Sorani in the twentieth. The Kurdish languages belong to the Iranian branch of the Indo-European family. They are generally classified as North-western Iranian languages.

History: 

Among the earliest Kurdish religious texts is the Yazidi Black Book, the sacred book of Yazidi faith. It is considered to have been authored sometime in the 13th century AD by Hassan bin Adi (b. 1195 AD), the great-grandnephew of Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir (d. 1162), the founder of the faith. It contains the Yazidi account of the creation of the world, the origin of man, the story of Adam and Eve and the major prohibitions of the faith. From the 15th to 17th centuries, classical Kurdish poets and writers developed a literary language. The most notable classical Kurdish poets from this period were Ali Hariri, Ahmad Khani, Malaye Jaziri and Faqi Tayran.

The Italian priest Maurizio Garzoni published the first Kurdish grammar titled Grammatica e Vocabolario della Lingua Kurda in Rome in 1787 after eighteen years of missionary work among the Kurds of Amadiya. This work is very important in Kurdish history as it is the first acknowledgment of the originality of the Kurdish language on a scientific base. Garzoni was given the title Father of Kurdology by later scholars. The Kurdish language was banned in a large portion of Kurdistan for some time. After the 1980 Turkish coup d'état until 1991 the use of the Kurdish language was illegal in Turkey.

Dialects: 

Gorani Kurds, Zazaki, and Shabaki dialects:

Gorani language and Zazaki l dialect :

Gorani is a language that appears to be distinct from Kurmanji and Sorani, but that shares vocabulary with both of the latter mentioned and some grammatical similarities with Sorani.Despite the differences, the Gorani language has been classified as part of the Kurdish language. This is probably due to the fact that Gorani-speakers, who are spread out across the southern and southeastern parts of Kurdistan, identify themselves as Kurds and the Gorani language is not spoken by other ethnic groups. European scholars have maintained that Gorani is separate from Kurdish and that Kurdish is synonymous with the Kurmanji-language group, whereas ethnic Kurds maintain that Kurdish encompasses any of the unique languages or dialects spoken by Kurds and that are not spoken by neighboring ethnic groups.

The Gorani language (which includes Horami) is often classified as part of the Zaza–Gorani branch of Indo-Iranian languages. The Zazaki language, spoken in the northernmost parts of Kurdistan differs both grammatically and in vocabulary and is generally not understandable by Gorani speakers but it is considered related to Gorani. Almost all Zaza-speaking communities, as well as speakers of another closely related language spoken in parts of Iraqi Kurdistan called Shabaki, identify themselves as ethnic Kurds.

Characteristics: 

The Kurdish languages are written in either of two alphabets: a Latin alphabet introduced by Jeladet Ali Bedirkhan in 1932 (Bedirxan alphabet, or Hawar after the Hawar magazine), and a Perso-Arabic alphabet, Sorani alphabet, named for the city of Soran, Iraq.

The Hawar is used in Turkey, Syria and Armenia; the Sorani in Iraq and Iran. Two additional alphabets, based on the Armenian and Cyrillic scripts, were once used in Soviet Armenia. Please the examples:

Hawar alphabet:

The Kurmanji dialect is written in an extended Latin alphabet, with 31 letters:

Aa Bb Cc Çç Dd Ee Êê Ff Gg Hh Ii Îî Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq, Rr Ss Şş Tt Uu Ûû Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz

In this alphabet the short vowels are E, I and U; the long vowels are A, Ê, Î, O and Û (see the IPA equivalents in the table below).

When presenting the alphabet in his magazine Hawar, Jeladet Ali Bedirkhan proposed using 〈ḧ ẍ '〉 for غ, ح, and ع, sounds which he judged to be "non-Kurdish" . These three glyphs do not have the status of letter and serve to represent these sounds when they are indispensable to comprehension.

Turkey does not recognize this alphabet. Use of the letters Q, W, and X, which did not exist in the Turkish alphabet until 2013, led to persecution in 2000 and 2003. Since September 2003, many Kurds applied to the courts seeking to change their names to Kurdish ones written with these letters, but failed.

The Turkish government finally legalized the letters Q, W, and X as part of the Turkish alphabet in 2013.

Sorani alphabet:

The Sorani Kurdish dialect is mainly written using a modified Persian alphabet with 33 letters introduced by Sa'id Kaban Sedqi. Unlike the standard Arabic alphabet, which is anabjad, Sorani is a true alphabet in which vowels are mandatory, making the script easy to read. Yet it is not a complete representation of Kurdish sounds, as it lacks short i, and is also unable to differentiate between w and short u or between y and î. However it does show the two pharyngeal consonants, as well as a voiced velar fricative used in Kurdish.

ێ

ی

ە

ھ

وو

ۆ

و

ن

م

ڵ

ل

گ

ک

ق

ڤ

ف

غ

ع

ش

س

ژ

ز

ڕ

ر

د

خ

ح

چ

ج

ت

پ

ب

ا

ئـ

A new sort order for the alphabet was recently proposed by Kurdish Academy in Erbil as the new standard:[3]

ێ

ی

وو

ۆ

و

ە

ھ

ن

م

ڵ

ل

گ

ک

ق

ڤ

ف

غ

ع

ش

س

ژ

ز

ڕ

ر

د

خ

ح

چ

ج

ت

پ

ب

ا

ئـ

Note: The above sequences are read from right to left.

The alphabet is often represented with 34 entries because وو, which is arguably incorrect, is given its own position. There are also unofficial letters such as ۊ and ۇ which can be found in variations of the alphabet.

Kurds in Iraq and Iran mainly use this alphabet, though the Kurdish Latin alphabet is also in use.

Cyrillic script[edit]

A third system, used for the few (Kurmanji-speaking) Kurds in the former Soviet Union, uses a Cyrillic alphabet, consisting of 40 letters:

А, Б, В, Г, Г', Д, Е, Ә, Ә', Ж, З, И, Й, К, К', Л, М, Н, О, Ö, П, П', Р, Р', С, Т, Т', У, Ф, Х, Һ, Һ', Ч, Ч', Ш, Щ, Ь, Э, ԚԜ

Armenian alphabet.

From 1921 to 1929 the Armenian alphabet was used for Kurdish languages in the Soviet Armenia.[4]

Then it was replaced with a Janalif-like Latin alphabet during Latinisation campaign.

Uniform adaptation for Kurdish.

In 1928 Kurdish language in all of the USSR, including Armenian SSR, was switched to a Latin alphabet containing some Cyrillic characters: a, b, c, ç, d, e, ә, f, g, г, h, i, ь, j, k, ʀ, l, m, ɴ, o, ө, w, p, n, q, ч, s, ш, ц, t, u, y, v, x, z, ƶ. In 1929 it was reformed and was replaced by:

A a

B b

C c

 ꞓ

Ç ç

D d

E e

Ə ə

Ə́ ə́

F f

G g

Ƣ ƣ

H h

Ħ ħ

I i

J j

K k

Ķ ķ

L l

M m

N n

O o

Ö ö

P p

 ṕ

Q q

R r

S s

Ş ş

T t

Ţ ţ

U u

Û û

V v

W w

X x

Y y

Z z

Ƶ ƶ

Ь ь

The Language in Sheffield: 

Kurdish is widely spoken in Sheffield due to great number of Kurdish origins leaving in Sheffield.  Although, there is not  a country called Kurdistan , the people and the regions are exit which is divided partly into Iran, Iraq, Turkey Surya. Kurds are not happy the way they are treated in each of those countries and are hoping to have their own country one day. 

Other Information: 

References: