Turkish

Turkish (Türkçe), also referred to as Istanbul Turkish or Anatolian Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic, with over 63 million native speakers. Speakers are located predominantly in Turkey, with smaller groups in Germany, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, and other parts of Eastern Europe, Caucasu. Turkish is a member of the Oghuz group of languages, a subgroup of the Turkic language family. There is a high degree of mutual intelligibility between Turkish and the other Oghuz languages, including Azerbaijani, Turkmen, Qashqai, Gagauz, and Balkan Gagauz Turkish.The Turkic family comprises some 30 living languages spoken across Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and Siberia. Some linguists believe the Turkic languages to be a part of a larger Altaic language family. About 40% of all speakers of Turkic languages are native Turkish speakers. The characteristic features of Turkish, such as vowel harmony, agglutination, and lack of grammatical gender, are universal within the Turkic family.

History: 

The roots of the language can be traced to the Altay region, with the first known written records dating back nearly 1,300 years. To the west, the influence of Ottoman Turkish—the variety of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire—spread as the Ottoman Empire expanded. In 1928, as one of Atatürk's Reforms in the early years of the Republic of Turkey, the Ottoman script was replaced with a Latin alphabet 1928. The earliest known Turkic inscriptions are the three monumental Orkhon inscriptions found in modern Mongolia, between 732 and 735. After the discovery and excavation of these monuments and associated stone slabs by Russian archaeologists in the wider area surrounding the Orkhon Valley between 1889 and 1893, it became established that the language on the inscriptions was the Old Turkic language written using the Orkhon script.With the Turkic expansion during Early Middle Ages (c. 6th–11th centuries), peoples speaking Turkic languages spread across Central Asia, covering a vast geographical region stretching from Siberia to Europe and the Mediterranean. 

Dialects: 

Modern standard Turkish is based on the dialect of Istanbul. Dialectal variation persists, in spite of the levelling influence of the standard used in mass media and the Turkish education system since the 1930s. Rumelice, Deliorman, Dinler, and Adakale, Kıbrıs Türkçesi r Cypriot Turkish and is spoken by the Turkish Cypriots, Edirne, Aegean , Yurkus are some dialect of Turkish language.  There are more dialect across the Eastern Europe and Central Asian regions.

Alphabet: 

Capital letters A B C Ç D E F G Ğ H I İ J K L M N O Ö P R S Ş T U Ü V Y Z Lower case letters a b c ç d e f g ğ h ı i j k l m n o ö p r s ş t u ü v y z

Characteristics: 

The Language in Sheffield: 

Turkish  is widely spoken in Britain and Sheffield one the town where you can meet many Turkish speaker from Turkey, Iran, Azerbaijan. 

References: