Urdu

Urdu /ˈʊərduː/ -اُردُو- ( The word Urdu is derived from the same Turkish word 'ordu' (army) that has given English horde)  is a living language which, or more precisely Modern Standard Urdu, is a standardized register of the Hindustani language that is associated with the Muslim religion. According to estimates, is spoken by close to 100 million people around the world.It is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan, a status which it shares with English, a longside of mnay other languages spkone in Pakistan such as: Punjabi,Pahari/ Mirpuri, Pahstu etc. Urdu is an  official language of five Indian states and one of the 22 scheduled languages in the Constitution of India.  It is also spoken and understood in parts of Bangladesh, Nepal, the Middle East, and many other countries around the world where Pakistani communities have settled. 

In India, Urdu is spoken in places with large Muslim communities or cities that were once power centres of Muslim Empires. They include parts of Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Kashmir, Bhopal and Hyderabad. Some Indian schools teach Urdu as a first language and have their own syllabus and exams. The population of Hindi-Urdu speakers is the fourth largest of the languages of the world, after Mandarin Chinese, English and Spanish.

The Urdu community in the UK numbers about four hundred thousand speakers. 

For further information go to:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urdu#Origin_of_Urdu

History: 

 Urdu and Hindi are both belong to  Indo-Aryan  family languages.  Urdu is associated with the Persian calligraphy and reads right-to-left, whereas Hindi resembles Sanskrit and reads left-to-right. The earliest linguistic influences in the development of Urdu probably began with the Muslim conquest of Sindh in 711. The language started evolving from  Persian and Arabic contacts during the invasions of the Indian subcontinent by Persian and Turkic forces from the 11th century onward. Urdu developed more decisively during the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526) and the Mughal Empire (1526–1858). When the Delhi Sultanate expanded south to the Deccan Plateau, the literary language was influenced by the languages spoken in the south, by Punjabi and Haryanvi, and by Sufi and court usage. The earliest verse dates to the 15th century, and the golden period of Urdu poetry was the 18th–19th centuries. Urdu religious prose goes back several centuries, while secular writing flourished from the 19th century onward. Modern Urdu is the national language of Pakistan and is also spoken by many millions of people in India.

Dialects: 

Urdu has a few recognised dialects, including Dakhni, Rekhta, and Modern Vernacular Urdu (based on the Khariboli dialect of the Delhi region). Dakhni (also known as Dakani, Deccani, Desia, Mirgan) is spoken in Deccan region of southern India. It is distinct by its mixture of vocabulary from Marathi and Konkani, as well as some vocabulary from Arabic, Persian and Turkish that are not found in the standard dialect of Urdu. Dakhini is widely spoken in all parts of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Urdu is read and written as in other parts of India. A number of daily newspapers and several monthly magazines in Urdu are published in these states. In terms of pronunciation, the easiest way to recognize a native speaker is their pronunciation of the letter "qāf" (ق) as "ḫē" (خ).

The Pakistani variant of the language becomes increasingly divergent from the Indian dialects and forms of Urdu, as it has absorbed many loan words, proverbs and phonetics from Pakistan's indigenous languages such as Pashto, Panjabi and Sindhi. Furthermore, due to the region's history, the Urdu dialect of Pakistan draws heavily from the Persian and Arabic languages, and the intonation and pronunciation are more formal compared with corresponding Indian dialects.

In addition, Rekhta (or Rekhti), the language of Urdu poetry, is sometimes counted as a separate dialect, one famously used by several poets of high acclaim in the bulk of their work. These included Mirza Ghalib, Mir Taqi Mir and Muhammad Iqbal.

Urdu spoken in Indian state of Odisha is different from Urdu spoken in other areas; it is a mixture of Oriya and Bihari

Alphabet: 

The Language in Sheffield: 

Urdu is widely spoken in Sheffield  as there are many different Pakistani communities ,where Urdu is thought to anyone  and mainly to the Pakikstani generation where were born in In the UK. Below you cant find links that lead  you to find out more the communities:

1.http://www.pmcuk.org/

2..http://www.yelp.co.uk/biz/pakistan-community-advice-centre-sheffield.

3.http://www.listenandlearn.org/urdu/sheffield

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